Glossary

[vc_row][vc_column width=”1/1″][vc_tabs style=”default” orientation=”vertical” tab_location=”left” container_bg_color=”#ffffff”][vc_tab title=”A” tab_id=”1458750483-1-1″]Abhidharma
Dogmas of Buddhist philosophy or metaphysics

Abhijñā
Direct knowledge; higher knowledge; supernatural knowledge

Abhiṣeka
Consecration (rite); empowerment

Acala
One of the Vidyârâjas class of deities

Ācārya
Spiritual guide or teacher

Acintya
Inconceivable

Adibuddha
Primordial or Cosmic Buddha

Akṣara
Letter of alphabet; syllable

Akṣobhya
One of the Five Wisdom Buddhas (dhyānibuddha)

Amitābha
One of the Five Wisdom Buddhas (dhyānibuddha)

Amoghasiddhi
One of the Five Wisdom Buddhas (dhyānibuddha)

Amṛta
Ambrosia

Apsaras
Celestial nymphs or fairies (Javanese: widadari), wives of the gandharvas

Arhat
A “perfected person” having attained final liberation (nirvāṇa)

Arūpa
Formless

Āsrava
Bodily, mental, and verbal actions action that impel one to generate karma

Aśura
Evil spirit; ghost; demon

Avalokiteśvara
A bodhisattva who embodies the compassion of all Buddhas

Atiśa
Atiśa Dīpaṃkara Śrījñāna (980-1054), recognised as one of the greatest figures of classical Buddhism

[/vc_tab][vc_tab title=”B” tab_id=”1458752038270-26-9″]Bhaṭṭāra
Lord

Bhakti
Worship

Bhāvana
Development, cultivation; meditation

Bhikṣu
Buddhist monk

Bodhicitta
Awakening mind; mind of enlightenment

Bodhisattva
One who is on the way to the attainment of perfect knowledge

Borobudur
The world’s largest Buddhist monument, located in Central Java, Indonesia

[/vc_tab][vc_tab title=”C” tab_id=”1458750558403-2-1″]Caitya
Hall or temple or place of worship; funeral monument or stūpa containing the ashes of deceased persons

Cakra
Wheel; discus; energy points in the subtle body

Candi
Temple (Javanese)

Caryā
Practice

Citta
Mind; heart

[/vc_tab][vc_tab title=”D” tab_id=”1458750559562-3-8″]Ḍāka
Vengeful male spirit (“sky goer”); a key tantric figure

Ḍākinī
Vengeful female imp (“sky goer”); a key tantric figure

Deva
A male god; deity

Devatā
Deity; divinity; godhead; idol

Devi
A female god; deity

Dāna
Charity; donation; gift

Dānava
Demon

Dhāraṇī
A Buddhist tantric prayer similar to a mantra

Dharma
The teachings of the Buddha

Dharmapāla
“Dharma defender”, i.e. a Protector of the Dharma in the form of a wrathful deity

Dharmacakra
Wheel of the Law (“Dharma”); synonym for the Buddha; particular mythical weapon

Dharmacakṣus
Eye of the Law; Dharma Eye

Dharmakāya
“Truth Body”; “Embodiment of Truth”; synonymous with Vairocana

Dhyāna
Profound and abstract religious meditation; concentrative absorption

Dhyānibuddha
A spiritual (not material) Buddha, referring to the Five Wisdom Buddhas: i.e., Vairocana, Akṣobhya, Ratnasambhava, Amithāba, Amogasiddhi

Doṣa
Fault; sin; evil

Dvārapāla
Guardian; gatekeeper; Hindu-Buddhist tutelary deity

[/vc_tab][vc_tab title=”E” tab_id=”1458750560438-4-9″]Eling
Contemplation (Javanese)

Ekāgratā
One-pointedness; i.e. one-pointed concentration (~samādhi)

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[/vc_tab][vc_tab title=”G” tab_id=”1458750571126-6-10″]Gandharva
Male nature spirits (Javanese: gênderuwo), husbands of the apsarasaḥ

Ghātā
Verse; stanza; metrical part of a sūtra

Guru
Spiritual teacher

[/vc_tab][vc_tab title=”H” tab_id=”1458750784140-7-1″]Homa
Ritual of consecrated fire

[/vc_tab][vc_tab title=”I” tab_id=”1458750805547-8-0″]Indra
Lord of the Devas; i.e. Śakra, ruler of the Trāyastriṃśa heaven

Iṣṭadevatā
Chosen tutelary deity; meditational deity (Tibetan: yidam)

[/vc_tab][vc_tab title=”J” tab_id=”1458750818665-9-7″]Jāpa
Muttering prayer; a muttered prayer

Jina
Victor; victorious; synonym for ‘Buddha’ and ‘arhat

Jñāna
Knowledge

[/vc_tab][vc_tab title=”K” tab_id=”1458750832774-10-9″]Karma
Action, work or deed; i.e. the spiritual principle of cause and effect where one’s intent and actions (cause) influence one’s future (effect)

Karuṇā
Compassion

Kavi
Poet; wise man; sage > Bhāṣa Kawi: Old Javanese language

Kejawen
Javanese mysticism

Keris
Indonesian sacred dagger

Kleśa
Mental defilements

Kūkai
Founder of Japanese esoteric Shingon Buddhism

[/vc_tab][vc_tab title=”L” tab_id=”1458750847490-11-5″]Laukika
Worldly; mundane (as opposed to lokottara: otherworldly; supramundane; supernormal)
[/vc_tab][vc_tab title=”M” tab_id=”1458750864058-12-10″]Mahāyāna
“Great Vehicle”, i.e. the path of the bodhisattva seeking complete enlightenment for the benefit of all sentient beings

Maitreya
The future Buddha, currently a bodhisattva residing in the Tuṣita Heaven

Maitrī
Benevolence; kindness

Makara
Mythical sea-creature; kāla~: decorative and symbolic elements of ancient Javanese temple architecture

Mālā
Garland; rosary; necklace

Maṇḍala
A spiritual and ritual symbol in the form of a circle, representing a microcosm of the universe

Mañjuśrī
Bodhisattva of Transcendent Wisdom (prajñā)

Mantra
Sacred formula; magical spell; incantation

Mantranaya
Mantra System; synonymous with Indonesian esoteric Buddhism

Mantrayāna
Mantra Vehicle; teachings of Mantrayāna Buddhism

Māra
Evil One; Devil; Destroyer; Death

Mārga
(Spiritual) Path

Mendut
A ninth-century Javanese Buddhist temple

Mpu
Honorary title (Javanese: êmpu)

Mokṣa
Liberation; release; deliverance

Mudrā
Seal; mark; spiritual gesture used in tantric rituals

[/vc_tab][vc_tab title=”N” tab_id=”1458750879216-13-1″]Nāga
Snake deity

Nāropā
One of the eighty-four mahāsiddhas (the great adepts of Vajrayāna Buddhism)

Nirmāṇakāya
“Transformation Body”, i.e. Siddhārtha Gautama Buddha’s body

Nirvāṇa
Final liberation; enlightenment; awakening

[/vc_tab][vc_tab title=”O” tab_id=”1458750892458-14-6″]
[/vc_tab][vc_tab title=”P” tab_id=”1458750907288-15-5″]Pāpa
Sin; guilt; evil; bad

Pāramitā
Perfection; ~yāna: path of perfection

Prajñā
Wisdom; ~paramitā: perfection of wisdom

Prāṇa
Life force; energy

Praśrabdhi
Tranquility; calmness; serenity

Pratītyasamutpāda
Doctrine of dependent origination

Pratyekabuddha
One who attained salvation for himself

Preta
Hungry ghost

Primbon
Grimoire (Javanese)

Prīti
Joy; rapture; bliss; a mental factor that arises from meditation

Pūjā
Worship

[/vc_tab][vc_tab title=”Q” tab_id=”1458750929380-16-1″]Qi
Life force; vital energy (Chinese)

[/vc_tab][vc_tab title=”R” tab_id=”1458750947335-17-7″]Rākṣasa
Demon

Ratna
Jewel; tri~: Triple Gem

Ratnasambhava
One of the Five Wisdom Buddhas (dhyānibuddha)

Ṛddhi
Psychic ability

Rêsi
Hermit; saint (Javanese)

Ṛṣi
Seer; sage; ascetic

Rūpa
Form

[/vc_tab][vc_tab title=”S” tab_id=”1458750961073-18-6″]Sādhanā
Spiritual exertion towards an intended goal

Sādhu
Good (man), ascetic; saint; one who undertakes the practice of sādhanā

Sajen
Ritual offerings (Javanese)

Śakra
Another name for Indra, Lord of the Gods

Samādhi
Deep concentration; meditation; trance (Javanese: semedi)

Samantabhadra
One of the four main bodhisattvas of Mahāyāna Buddhism

Śamatha
Tranquility meditation

Samaya
Tantric vows and rules of conduct

Sambhogakāya
“Enjoyment Body”, i.e. the completion of bodhisattva vows by Amitābha, Vajrasattva and Mañjuśrī, thereby becoming Buddhas

Saṃgha
Monastic community of ordained Buddhist monks

Sesaji
Ritual offerings (Indonesian)

Shingon
Japanese esoteric Buddhism

Siddha
One who has achieved spiritual realization

Siddhi
Spiritual power

Śīla
Morality

Śrāvaka
Disciple (of the Buddha)

Śri
Honorific title

Stūpa
Buddhist monument; dome-shaped shrine containing Buddhist relics

Sudana
Indian Buddhist pilgrim seeking enlightenment; assistant of Bodhisattva Avalokiteśvara

Sukha
Meditative happiness or pleasure

Sugata
One who has fared well; a synonym for the Buddha

Śūnyatā
Emptiness; nothingness; non-reality; illusory nature of phenomena

Sutra
Buddhist scripture; discourse

[/vc_tab][vc_tab title=”T” tab_id=”1458750974053-19-9″]Tantra
Esoteric teachings with a magical orientation

Tapa
Spiritual practice involving meditation, renunciation, and asceticism

Tattva
Reality

Theravāda
Doctrine of the Elders, referring to the teachings of the Pāli Canon as practised in “Southern Buddhism”

Trikāya
Doctrine of the Three Bodies of the Buddha: (1) Dharmakāya; (2) Sambhogakāya; and (3) Nirmāṇakāya

Tripiṭaka
“Three Baskets”, i.e. the Buddhist Canon: (1) Vinayapiṭaka (“Basket of Discipline)”; (2) Sūtrapiṭaka (“Basket of Discourses”); and (3) Abhidharmapiṭaka (“Basket of Metaphysics”)

[/vc_tab][vc_tab title=”U” tab_id=”1458750988829-20-10″]Upāya
Skilful means

[/vc_tab][vc_tab title=”V” tab_id=”1458751040401-21-2″]Vairocana
Primordial Buddha; one of the Five Wisdom Buddhas (dhyānibuddha)

Vajra
Adamantine; diamond; thunderbolt (Javanese: bajra)

Vajradhāra
Tantric form of Śakyamuni Buddha (Javanese: Kabajradharan)

Vajrapāni
“Vajra Wielder”, a protective bodhisattva surrounding the Buddha

Vajrasattva
“Vajra Being”; “Adamantine Mind”, an esoteric aspect of the bodhisattva Samantabhadra

Vajrayāna
“Adamantine Vehicle”, referring to the esoteric teachings of “Northern Buddhism”

Vande
A reverential action of bowing to someone or something; “Venerable Sir”, referring to a Buddhist monk (Javanese: bhante)

Vidyā
Knowledge; spell; incantation; magical skill

Vihara
Temple, monastery

Vinaya
Monastic code of discipline

Vipaśyanā
Insight meditation

[/vc_tab][vc_tab title=”W” tab_id=”1458751067986-22-4″]Wayang
Traditional Indonesian shadow play

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[/vc_tab][vc_tab title=”Y” tab_id=”1458751114964-24-7″]Yab-yum
“Father-mother” (Tibetan); mystical union of wisdom and compassion

Yakṣa
A class of benevolent nature spirits

Yama
King of Hell; Lord of Death

Yantra
Mystical diagram; sacred geometric design

Yidam
Meditational deity (Tibetan)

Yoga
A variety of spiritual practices and methods to develop mindfulness, concentration, supernatural powers, tranquility, and insight

Yogin
A practitioner of yoga; an ascetic

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